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《黑客英雄》书摘

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2010年12月 7日

《黑客与画家》翻译完成后,我还欠出版社一篇译者序。

我就想,《译者序》应该解释一下"什么是黑客",否则书名可能会产生误解。大众心目中,黑客已经成了"不法分子"的同义词。但是实际上,黑客指的是最优秀的程序员。

要想真正说清楚"什么是黑客",并不容易,必须梳理这个词的源流。我就决定把名著《黑客英雄》(Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution)读一遍。




这本书出版于1984年,描述了黑客的历史以及他们的价值观。由于这是该领域的第一本著作,所以引起了广泛反响。1994年出了十周年版,2010年又出了25周年版。计算机书籍的寿命其实很短,三五[屏蔽]的书大多数已经无人问津,只有那些最重要、最经典的书,才会在二十多年后还有再版价值。

此书没有中译本,我读的是英文原版。阅读过程中做了一些摘录,贴出来与大家分享。

=============================

《黑客英雄》书摘

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution

Steven Levy 著

阮一峰 译

1.

They had grown up with a specific relationship to the world, wherein things had meaning only if you found out how they worked.

他们从小就认为,只有知道一件事物的原理,它才是有用的东西。

2.

It was the predictability and controllability of a computer system--as opposed to the hopelessly random problems in a human relationship--which made hacking particularly attractive.

计算机是可预测和可控的,而人类不是,这就是计算机的吸引力所在。

3.

The Right Thing to do was to make sure that any good program got the fullest exposure possible, because information was free and the world would only be improved by its accelerated flow.

正确的做法是,尽可能广泛地传播优秀的程序。因为信息是免费的,只有加速流动,全世界才能从中受益。

4.

No sooner did he decide to do something than he began work on it. He didn't bother to notify his superiors.

一旦决定了,他就立即动手做,从不请示上级同意,那样太麻烦。

5.

[One day,] You realize that computer is not just a random piece of equipment, but something hooked to a system that you can endlessly explore.

突然有一天,你意识到计算机并不是普通的设备,而是一个可以无尽探索的系统。

6.

To a hacker, a closed door is an insult, and a locked door is an outrage.

对于黑客来说,关着的gate就是一种挑衅,而锁着的gate则是一种侮辱。

7.

In one side of the world, people were locking everything up and controlling things and preventing information from flowing the wrong way and things from being stolen.

在世界的一端,人们把所有东西都锁起来,严加控制,防止信息不当流动以及发生偷窃。

Then there was another side of the world where people felt everything should be available to everybody.

在世界的另一端,人们认为所有东西都是可以共享的。

8.

Bureaucrats knew their survival depended on keeping people in ignorance, by using artificial means--like locks--to keep people under control.

官僚[屏蔽]者知道,自己的存在取决于人们对他们的作为一无所知。所以,他们就用各种方法(比如锁),将人们置于控制之下。

9.

These hackers actually thought that a person was entitled to use a tool just because he thought he could do something useful with it.

黑客认为,只要他能用某种工具做出有用的结果,他就有权使用这种工具。

10.

He "wasn't interested" in the teachers, the students, or anything that went on in school. He was interested in building systems.

他不想上学,对老师、同学、校园生活都没有兴趣。他只想建造自己的系统。

11.

Controlling a robot was a step beyond computer programming in controlling the system that was the real world.

开发机器人比编程更高级,因为你在控制真实世界的系统。

12.

[Hacker's programming is like] Hightech Tom Sawyer painting a fence with assembly code.

黑客编程就像汤姆·索亚用汇编语言油漆篱笆。

13.

Theorists and grad students did not necessarily see the process of computing as a joyful end in itself: they were more concerned with getting degrees, winning professional recognition, and the, ahem, advancement of computer science.

理论家和研究生,并不是为了编程本身的乐趣而编程,他们只是为了得到学位、获得学术地位、以及所谓的推动计算机科学的进步。

They were all in the midst of scholarly and scientific theses and dissertations which pontificated on the difficulty of doing the kind of thing that hackers were attempting.

他们在论文中大肆宣扬某些问题极其困难,而此时黑客已经在动手尝试解决这些问题。

14.

Improve the world by understanding and building systems.

理解和开发计算机系统,从而改变世界。

15.

Who you were didn't matter as much as what kind of hacker you were.

重要的不是你是谁,而是你是哪一类的黑客。

16.

The most important thing we can do with the world is avoid randomness, and figure out ways by which things can be planned.

为了建设一个更美好的世界,最重要的就是避免随机性,并找出将一切安排得仅仅有条的方法。

17.

All serious computer programs are expressions of an individual.

所有严肃的计算机程序,都是个人的表达方式。

The important thing about a program is that it's something you can show to people, and they can read it and they can learn something from it. It carries information. It's a piece of your mind that you can write down and give to someone else just like a book.

程序的最重要之处,就是能够给别人看,被他们阅读,并且有所领会。它包含着信息。它是你个人思想的一部分,你把它写出来,像一本书一样交给他人。

18.

One of the really fun things about computers is that you have control over them. When you have a bureaucracy around a computer you no longer have control over it.

计算机的一个真正有趣之处,就是你能够控制它。可是,如果计算机旁边有一个官僚[屏蔽]者,你就无法控制计算机了。

19.

[In some places,] Develop a program that might have only sometimes worked, or might have some danger of crashing the system, that was not encouraged. You want an environment where making those mistakes is not something for which you're castigated, but an environment where people say, "Oops, you made a mistake."

有些地方不鼓励你开发那些可能出错的程序,因为它们有让系统崩溃的危险。程序员真正需要的工作环境,就是那种犯错后不会受到责备,别人只会说"哦,你出错了"的环境。

20.

The best way to get hackers to do things was to suggest them, and hope that the hackers would be interested enough. Then you would get production unheard of in industry or academia.

让黑客为你工作的最好方法,就是向他们提建议,希望他们会对此产生浓厚兴趣。然后,你就会得到业界或学术界闻所未闻的生产力。

21.

It is indeed true that large systems are never "finished."

大型系统永远没有"完工"的那一天,那是千真万确的。

22.

A benevolently anarchistic lifestyle dedicated to productivity and passion. Art, science, and play had merged into the magical activity of programming.

建设性的无Gov-ern.ment[屏蔽]生活方式,会导致生产力和[屏蔽]。艺术、科学、游戏都神奇地与编程融为一体。

23.

[The outside of the world] did not regard computers with the same respect and fascination as did the hackers. And they did not necessarily regard the hackers' intentions as benign and idealistic.

外部世界不像黑客那样尊崇和迷恋计算机。他们不可能体会到黑客的动机是善意和理想[屏蔽]的。

24.

There were many, many, many years that went by when all I did was hack computers, and I didn't feel lonely, like I was missing anything. But I guess as I started to grow up more, round out more, change more, become less eccentric in certain ways, I started needing more input from people.

好多好多年以来,我的生活就是与计算机打交道,从未感到过孤独,或缺少了什么东西。但是,我想随着年龄增长,我不再那么偏激了,改变了很多,不再那么偏执于某种生活方式,我开始寻求更多的与他人的交流。

25.

It was sort of necessary for these people to be extremely brilliant and in some sense, handicapped socially so that they would just kind of concentrate on this one thing.

他们无比聪明,可是又有着某种程度的社交障碍。这种搭配多多少少是必需的,因为只有这样,他们才能集中精力干一件事。

=================================
顶端 Posted: 2010-12-09 16:29 | [楼 主]
little monk



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楼主明显没搞清楚状况,这个区专gate给文学小青年感叹蹉跎岁月的
顶端 Posted: 2010-12-13 11:56 | [1 楼]
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